Vegetation is mostly coniferous forests, consisting mainly of spruces and pines. To the east, the larch becomes more common and the cedar begins to appear. Besides the fir, the silver fir and the linden are common in southern taiga, as well as green moss forests with oxalis. Fir-groves with bilberries are common in middle taiga, and the silver fir can be found in river valleys.
The soil is covered with either lichen or green moss, or green and sphagnum moss; or lichen, green and sphagnum moss. In the herb and bush areas, one can find the sedge, the bog whortleberry and the wild rosemary.
Waterlogged fir-groves with birches and pines predominate on flat divides. Fir forests with pines and birches (with bog whortleberries in the bush circle) predominate in northern taiga. In the extreme north of taiga, fir-groves become less condensed, and the birch occupies considerable part.
In the forest tundra, suppressed fir-groves and fir-birch forests are located in small islands on the drained slopes of ridges and in narrow strips along valleys.
Birch-woods can be mostly found in the Urals and forest-tundra. Aspen-woods are located mostly in the southern areas of Komi. Large areas in the taiga are occupied by swamps. In the middle taiga they are often surrounded by small pine trees, and there are no forests in the northern area.
|Сергей Щербак. Поселок Хальмер-Ю|
Meadows can be mostly found in the flood-lands of major rivers. Dry meadows are common in southern taiga. Tundra vegetation - brushwood of dwarf birch and bushes - can be seen even in the northern part of taiga (in river valleys and on the tops of some ridges).
Dwarf birch predominates in northern forest-tundra, alternating with swamps and small forest islands. Typical tundra without forests occupies a relatively small part of the Komi Republic and belongs to the sub-zone of bush tundra.
Dwarf birch tundra predominates in the areas between rivers, as well as bumpy peat bogs, sedge and moss swamps. Willow brushwoods are common in river valleys. The foothills and slopes (up to 600-700 m) of the taiga Urals are covered with coniferous taiga (spruces and pines).
The larch predominates in the north of the mountain and taiga zone. Mountain tundra is located above the forest zone and passes in turn (from 800 m in the Pre-Polar Urals and 1200-1300 m in the Northern Urals) into the alpine tundra belt, where one can find only single specimens of taller plants.
Komi's fauna comprises about 300 vertebral species, including more than 50 species of mammals, over 200 species of birds and several thousand invertebrate species. Siberian taiga species predominate and become even more abundant in the east: one can find the sable, the Siberian weasel, the nutcracker and other species there.
Some European species can be found only in the west of Komi, in southern areas, one can find animals inhabiting mixed forests and open forest steppes: the European hare, the field-vole, the polecat, the field-iark, the quail, the partridge, etc.
Many mammals and birds are hunted: the squirrel, the marten, the bear, the wolverine, the lynx, and the chipmunk in coniferous forests; and the lepus, the fox, the ermine, the wolf and the elk in low forests and river valleys.
Thirty-six species of fish have been discovered in Komi water areas, the most valuable food fish being the salmon, the omul, the white salmon, the white-fish and the umber.
One can see a rare hybrid of the sable and the marten - the sable-marten - in the Pechora-IIychskyc Reserve, and wild reindeer in the taiga and tundra.
The wood grouses and goes the hazel grouse are hunted in taiga and the black grouse is hunted in birch woods. Few species inhabit the tundra all the year round. It is mainly the polar fox, the willow grouse and the rock ptarmigan that are hunted. A lot of waterfowl can be seen near tundra water area in the summer.
Rodents are quite common. Near lakes and ponds, one can find the otter, the mink, the water vole, and the muskrat; Land the beaver and the raccoon dog are being acclimatized.
Komi Republic: Guidebook. – Moscow, 2005. – P. 38-40.
Атлас Республики Коми. – М.: Издательство «Дизайн. Информация. Картография», 2001.- 552 с.
Историко-культурный атлас Республики Коми. – М.:Изд. дом «ДРОФА», Изд-во «ДиК», 1997. – 384 с.