Syktyvkar is the city of the Komi Republic, Russia. Population: 235,000 (2010 Census preliminary results); 230,011 (2002 Census); 232,117 (1989 Census).
Syktyvkar is located on the Sysola River, which is the origin of its former name Ust-Sysolsk. The city's current name comes from Syktyv, the Komi name for the same river, plus kar, meaning "city". The town is located near to the point where the Sysola joins the larger Vychegda River, which is itself a branch of the Northern Dvina.
It is believed that there has been a settlement at the city's present site since at least the 16th century. It was granted city status by Catherine the Great in 1780, and later became the capital of the Komi Autonomous Oblast. It has retained its position as the Komi capital since that point, although a large influx of ethnic Russians in the 20th century has actually left the Komi in a minority there.
The majority of the population were merchants and peasants. The main occupations of the inhabitants were agriculture, cattle-breeding, hunting, fishing, and trade.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the population had grown to 6,000 people. The Tsarist government made the Komi region a place of political exile.
In 1921, Ust-Sysolsk was given the status of administrative center of the newly-formed Komi Autonomous Soviet Republic. It was given the name of Syktyvkar, which is Komi for "a town on the Sysola". In 1936, Syktyvkar became the capital of the Komi ASSR.
Республика Коми: Энциклопедия. Т. 3. – Сыктывкар, 2000. – 400 с.